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Film Evaporators: Types And Applications

Film Evaporators: Types And Applications

Date:3 November, 2023   |   No Comments   |   Posted By Team Alaquainc

For the concentration of liquids, evaporators are essential equipment. Many industries use film evaporators for evaporation processes due to their efficiency. These innovative devices play a vital role in separating volatile components from liquid mixtures. Hence, it makes them an indispensable tool in the production of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and food products. With their ability to operate under vacuum conditions, film evaporators offer exceptional heat transfer rates and impressive evaporation capacities. Their professional-grade design ensures consistent performance, superior energy efficiency, and reduced processing time, making them a preferred choice for many industries.

This blog aims to provide a comprehensive overview of many film evaporators like falling film evaporators, rising film evaporators, etc. Also, we will discuss their working principles, key advantages, applications, and maintenance tips.

Types of Film Evaporators:

There are several types of film evaporators available, including:

  • Falling Film Evaporators

Various industries use falling film evaporators for their efficiency in separating volatile compounds from liquid solutions. It is evident that these evaporators have become an integral part of the production process. Food and chemical industries use them particularly. The design of a falling film evaporator allows for a thin film of the liquid to continuously flow down the heated tubes. This results in a large surface area for evaporation, maximizing heat transfer efficiency and reducing energy consumption.

Moreover, the uniform film formation promotes better heat distribution, ensuring consistent product quality. The controlled flow rate and operating parameters of these evaporators provide the flexibility needed to handle a wide range of feedstocks. Further, it will help them to achieve the desired concentration levels. Overall, falling film evaporators offer an effective and reliable solution for large-scale liquid evaporation, making them a preferred choice for many professionals in the industry.

  • Rising Film Evaporators

The efficiency and effectiveness of rising film evaporators make them popular in a wide range of industries. As the liquid passes through vertical tubes, steam leaves from the bottom, creating a rising film. The rising film design allows for a high heat transfer coefficient. Hence ensures rapid evaporation and minimal residence time of the liquid. Thus reducing the chances of degradation of heat-sensitive substances. Moreover, the uniform liquid distribution and thin film formation result in a higher surface area for evaporation. Afterward, it leads to improved efficiency and overall productivity. Industries use these evaporators where heat-sensitive materials need to be concentrated or purified, such as the food and pharmaceutical sectors. 

  • Forced Circulation Evaporators

Forced circulation evaporators, known for their efficient and reliable performance, are a critical component in various industrial processes. These evaporators operate on a simple yet ingenious principle – by forcibly circulating the liquid to be evaporated through the heat exchanger. This results in a significantly higher heat transfer rate as compared to natural circulation evaporators. With their professional-grade design, forced circulation evaporators excel in handling even highly viscous liquids or those with high solids content. The forced circulation of the liquid ensures optimal heat exchange, leading to faster evaporation rates and reduced energy consumption.

Furthermore, these evaporators can be easily customized to meet specific industry requirements. This makes them an ideal choice for a wide range of applications, including pharmaceuticals, chemical processing, and wastewater treatment. Finally, forced circulation evaporators make them an indispensable asset in numerous industrial processes.

Working Principle:

Film evaporators operate based on the principle of evaporation. The liquid feed enters the evaporator through a distribution system and is uniformly distributed across the heating surface. The liquid film then forms and flows down while being heated by a heat source, typically steam.
As the liquid film flows downwards, it undergoes evaporation. The generated vapour rises through a vapour column, separating from the liquid. The concentrated liquid leaves the evaporator, while the vapour is condensed and collected separately.

Advantages of Film Evaporators:

Film evaporators offer various advantages, making them a popular choice in many industries. Some key advantages include:

  1. High Efficiency: Film evaporators provide efficient heat transfer due to the thin liquid film, ensuring rapid evaporation and concentration.
  2. Gentle Treatment: The low residence time of the liquid in film evaporators prevents thermal degradation and minimizes the risk of product quality deterioration.
  3. Versatility: Film evaporators can handle a wide range of liquids, including heat-sensitive, viscous, or foaming fluids.
  4. Energy Savings: The advanced design of film evaporators promotes energy efficiency, reducing operating costs.
  5. Compact Size: Film evaporators have a compact footprint, enabling easy installation and integration into existing process lines.


Enhancing Heat Transfer in the Food Industry-

The food industry extensively uses film evaporators for concentration and evaporation. These evaporators facilitate the removal of excess moisture, allowing for the concentration of food products. The efficient, thin-film layer created by these evaporators ensures a large heat transfer area, maximizing evaporation rates and reducing processing time. This enables the food industry to achieve higher productivity while maintaining excellent product quality.

Pharmaceutical Industry: Purification and Concentration-

The pharmaceutical industry uses film evaporators for purification and concentration. These evaporators efficiently separate volatile compounds, impurities, and solvents from pharmaceutical products, resulting in higher purity levels. The thin film formed during the evaporation process minimizes the exposure of the pharmaceutical compounds to high temperatures. Consequently, it preserves their integrity and ensures their quality. Moreover, film evaporators ensure optimum concentration levels by precisely controlling operating conditions.

Petrochemical Industry: Recovery and Refining-

The petrochemical industry heavily relies on film evaporators for the recovery and refining of various substances. Film evaporators enable the separation of different components of a mixture based on their boiling points. This is particularly useful when refining crude oil or recovering valuable solvents from waste streams. By utilizing film evaporators, the petrochemical industry maximizes the recovery of valuable components and reduces the environmental impact of waste disposal.

Perfume Industry: Concentration of Fragrance Components-

As a result of their ability to concentrate fragrance components efficiently, film evaporators hold high value in the perfume industry. These evaporators create a thin film that allows for the rapid evaporation of solvents, leaving behind concentrated fragrance compounds. This concentration process is vital in ensuring the desired olfactory profile of the perfume is achieved. Film evaporators also prevent the degradation of delicate fragrance components, preserving the overall quality of the final product.

Environmental Applications: Wastewater Treatment-

Types of Film Evaporators are gaining popularity in the field of wastewater treatment due to their ability to concentrate and separate contaminants effectively. These evaporators aid in the removal of water from industrial wastewater, reducing its volume and facilitating the subsequent treatment processes. The thin-film technology employed ensures efficient heat transfer, enabling the evaporation of water while leaving behind concentrated pollutants. This results in reduced disposal costs and a more sustainable approach to wastewater management.

Maintenance Tips for Film Evaporators:

To ensure optimal performance and longevity of film evaporators, the following maintenance tips should be followed:

  1. Regular Cleaning: Regularly clean the evaporator’s heating surface to remove any deposits or fouling that may impact heat transfer efficiency.
  2. Inspect and Replace Gaskets: Inspect gaskets for wear or damage and replace them as necessary.
  3. Monitor Fluid Flow: Regularly check and monitor the flow rate of the liquid feed to ensure optimal operation.
  4. Temperature Controls: Maintain proper temperature control to prevent overheating or underutilization of the evaporator.
  5. Routine Inspection: Perform routine inspections to identify any potential issues, such as leaks, corrosion, or mechanical wear.


Types of Film Evaporators are efficient, versatile, and widely used in various industries for the concentration of liquids. Their unique design and working principle ensure high heat transfer rates, gentle treatment of liquids, and energy efficiency. Film evaporators like rising film evaporators are widely used in various industries due to their efficiency and effectiveness in the evaporation process. These devices are able to handle a wide range of viscosities and heat-sensitive materials making them a popular choice in industries such as food processing, pharmaceuticals, and chemical engineering.  use of film evaporators provides an efficient and reliable solution for the evaporation requirements of various industrial processes.

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