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Understanding Crystallizers and Their Integral Role in Industry

Understanding Crystallizers and Their Integral Role in Industry

Date:27 July, 2023   |   No Comments   |   Posted By Team Alaquainc

Crystallization is a critical process in various industries, particularly in chemical manufacturing and processing. At the heart of this process is an indispensable piece of equipment: the crystallizer. Let’s dive deep into understanding what a crystallizer is, its types, and its role in the industry.

Crystallizer deciphered:

While a crystallizer is a piece of equipment or a vessel that promotes and manages the production of solid crystals from a liquid solution or melt. So it speeds up the process by regulating the temperature, supersaturation level, and flow conditions within the vessel, resulting in optimum crystal formation.

Application of crystallizer:

While crystallizers are primarily used to separate substances from solutions and melt by converting them into solid crystalline forms. 

Industries often employ crystallizers to:

  • Purify Substances: 

As a substance crystallizes, it often leaves impurities behind in the solution, leading to a purified solid product.

  • Recover Valuable Materials: 

Many industrial processes utilize crystallizers to recover valuable materials from waste streams.

  • Produce Desired Products: 

In some cases, the crystallized product is the end goal, such as the production of table salt from brine.

Types of crystallizers:

While various types of crystallizers cater to different requirements and operational conditions:

1. DTB (Draft Tube Baffle) Crystallizers:

 Especially used for large-scale production and when controlled crystal size distribution is required.

2. Surface-Cooled Crystallizers:

 Utilizes a cooled surface for crystallization, making them suitable for producing thin films of crystalline materials.

3. Agitated Batch Crystallizers: 

While commonly used in laboratory or specialty production processes.

4. Fluidized Bed Crystallizers:

Ideal for products that require larger crystal sizes.

Understanding evaporator crystallizer:

An evaporator crystallizer combines the processes of evaporation and crystallization. While a regular crystallizer promotes the formation of solid crystals from a solution, an evaporator crystallizer does this by evaporating the solvent. So this increases the solute concentration, leading to supersaturation and, consequently, crystallization. It’s particularly useful when dealing with solutions with a high solute content or when zero liquid discharge conditions are needed.

Nucleation in crystallization:

Nucleation is the initial step in the crystallization process. So it refers to the formation of tiny solid particles (nuclei) in a supersaturated solution, which then acts as a foundation for crystal growth. 

There are two types of nucleation:

Primary and Secondary Nucleation: A Deep Dive

In the world of crystallization, the formation of initial solid particles in a solution is crucial. So this process is known as nucleation. So it plays a pivotal role in determining the number, size, and quality of the resultant crystals. While nucleation is a foundational concept, it isn’t monolithic. Two primary forms dominate the field: primary and secondary nucleation. Let’s delve deeper into these phenomena.

Primary Nucleation:

While primary nucleation refers to the spontaneous emergence of new crystal nuclei in a supersaturated solution without the influence of pre-existing crystals.


  • Homogeneous Nucleation:

 This is the most basic form of primary nucleation. Here, solute molecules come together spontaneously due to supersaturation to form a nucleus. So there is no external surface to catalyze this formation, hence the term ‘homogeneous’.

  • Heterogeneous Nucleation: 

In this mechanism, external surfaces such as vessel walls, impurities, or suspended particles can provide a platform for solute molecules to aggregate, making it easier for nucleation to occur compared to the homogeneous method.

Factors Affecting Primary Nucleation:

  • Degree of Supersaturation:
Higher levels of supersaturation typically induce a faster nucleation rate.
  • Temperature: 

Depending on the solute and solvent, varying the temperature can either promote or deter nucleation.

  • Presence of Impurities: 

Certain impurities can catalyze nucleation, leading to heterogeneous primary nucleation.

Secondary Nucleation:

Definition: Secondary nucleation is the process wherein the formation of new nuclei is triggered by the presence of existing crystals (often called seed crystals) or external forces like agitation.


  • Contact Nucleation: 

When existing crystals collide with each other, fragments may break off and act as nuclei for new crystals.

  • Fluid Shear Nucleation: 

While intense fluid shear, especially near impellers or vessel walls, can cause fragments of existing crystals to break off and serve as nuclei.

  • Attrition Nucleation: 

Mechanical forces, either from agitation or other sources, can cause larger crystals to fragment into smaller nuclei.

Factors Affecting Secondary Nucleation:

  • Agitation: 

The intensity and type of agitation can significantly influence the rate and extent of secondary nucleation.

  • Crystal Size: 

Larger crystals are more prone to fragmentation, especially under turbulent conditions.

  • Solution Viscosity:

While high-viscosity solutions can dampen crystal movements, reducing collision rates and secondary nucleation.

A well-managed nucleation process ensures the production of crystals with desired size, purity, and shape.

Final Thoughts

In a nutshell, crystallizer equipment plays an instrumental role in numerous industries, allowing for the efficient separation and purification of substances. So their diverse types and the underlying science of crystallization, including nucleation, make them indispensable in optimizing product quality and operational efficiency. Whether you’re in the chemical, pharmaceutical, or food processing industry, understanding crystallizers and their functionality can open doors to improved processes and products.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Crystallizers

Q1: What is a crystallizer?

Answer: A crystallizer is an equipment or vessel specifically designed to facilitate and manage the formation of solid crystals from a liquid solution or melt. So by controlling factors like temperature, supersaturation level, and flow conditions, a crystallizer ensures the optimal formation and growth of crystals in a controlled environment.

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Q2: What are crystallizers used for?

Answer: Crystallizers are employed in various industries to achieve several objectives:

  • Purification: As substances crystallize, they often leave behind impurities in the solution, resulting in a purified solid product.
  • Material Recovery: So industries use crystallizers to recover valuable substances from waste streams or solutions.
  • Production: In certain scenarios, the main goal is the crystallized product itself, such as producing table salt from brine or sugar from sugarcane juice.

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Q3: What are the types of crystallizers?

Answer: Crystallizers come in various types depending on their application and operational conditions:

  • DTB (Draft Tube Baffle) Crystallizers: Suitable for large-scale production and when a specific crystal size distribution is needed.
  • Surface-Cooled Crystallizers: These utilize a cooled surface to enable crystallization, making them perfect for producing crystalline films.
  • Agitated Batch Crystallizers: Often found in laboratories or for specialty production processes.
  • Fluidized Bed Crystallizers: Designed for products that require larger crystal sizes.

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Q4: What is an evaporator crystallizer?

Answer: An evaporator crystallizer is a special type of crystallizer that combines the processes of evaporation and crystallization. It promotes crystallization by evaporating the solvent, which increases the solute concentration in the solution, leading to supersaturation and eventual crystallization. So this type is particularly useful for solutions with high solute content or when aiming for zero liquid discharge conditions.

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Q5: What is the role of nucleation in crystallization?

Answer: Nucleation is the foundational step in the crystallization process. So it pertains to the formation of small solid particles or nuclei in a supersaturated solution, which serves as the basis for further crystal growth. Nucleation can be:

  • Primary Nucleation: 
  • Happens spontaneously in a supersaturated solution without any existing crystals.
  • Secondary Nucleation:
  •  Initiated due to the presence of existing crystals, agitation, or other external influences.

A well-controlled nucleation process is essential for producing crystals with the desired size, purity, and shape.

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