A crystallizer is a processing device designed to concentrate feed into stable crystals and clean water. It employs a solid-liquid separation technique known as crystallization, producing solid crystals from a liquid solution. Crystallizers have the capability to completely remove liquid wastes, achieving zero liquid discharge (ZLD). Primary nucleation and secondary nucleation are the two steps of crystallization. Primary nucleation describes the process of forming new crystals. So secondary nucleation is the primary stage that results in the mass processing of crystals. There are two types of crystallization processes: evaporative crystallization and cooling crystallization.
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Crystallizers can operate independently or in tandem with other technologies, such as evaporators, to enhance the efficiency of the crystallization process.Evaporators that use steam to drain water from a solution are known as steam evaporators. Evaporation concentrates a liquid by heating the solution, which is usually water. The wastewater concentrator functions as an evaporator, converting waste-laden industrial wastewater into purified water for reuse. Alaqua Inc is a key player in this transformative process. crystallizers supplier in the USA, along with other processing equipment to meet the industrial processing equipment requirements.
Types of Crystallizers
The different types of crystallizer for different processing requirements are:
Forced Circulation Crystallizer:
- Applying the vapor recompression principle, forced circulation crystallizers, whether thermal or mechanical, find extensive use in both single and multiple-effect configurations. Operating within the low vacuum to atmospheric pressure range, these units are favored when crystal size is not a critical factor or when crystal growth proceeds at a reasonable rate. So depending on the application, almost every building material may be used for the fabrication of these crystallizers.
Oslo Type Growth Crystallizer (classified-suspension crystallizer):
- The Oslo style crystallizer, also known as a classified-suspension Best Crystallizer, represents the oldest design for producing large, coarse crystals. The architecture relies on desupersaturating the mother liquor by contacting the larger crystals in the crystallization chamber and holding the majority of the crystals in suspension without the use of a stirring system, allowing for the processing of large crystals with a narrow size distribution.
- The solubility of a compound in certain solutions increases as the temperature rises. The mixture becomes supersaturated as saturated solutions cool, and crystallization begins. So the main benefits of cooling crystallization are high crystal size uniformity and energy consumption. The elimination of heat supply for evaporation results in significant energy savings. So in flash cooling, a segment of the liquid undergoes evaporation, efficiently eliminating latent heat and expediting the cooling process.
- In evaporative crystallization, the solution, which contains the solvent and the soluble portion to be crystallized, is heated until the solvent undergoes evaporation. Since the higher dosage exceeds the chemical compound’s solubility, the molecules of the soluble compound break out as crystals as the solvent evaporates. When dealing with common compounds including inorganic salts and sucrose, this is the most popular method of crystallization. Typically fueled by steam, crystallization units for heat supply often utilize forced circulation. So the process occurs at nearly isothermal temperatures, with evaporation being the predominant mechanism involved.
- While employed for salts with reduced solubility at higher temperatures, vacuum cooling crystallization involves gradually reducing pressure, leading to the evaporation of the solvent (water). The solution cools to its boiling point, resulting in the Best Crystallizer of salt as the temperature decreases. So air sucked in at the bottom of the crystallizer (air agitation) keeps it suspended and transports it to the outlet.